Material Design

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As an instructional designer, I love all things “DESIGN” and try to stay abreast of the latest design trends. Yet, I hadn’t noticed Material Design. It was developed in 2014 by Google, but somehow it’s only now that I chanced upon it.

For those of you still in the dark, Material Design is a “visual language that synthesizes the classic principles of good design with the innovation of technology and science.”

Ok, that definition comes straight from the website. Material Design is essentially an Android-oriented design language that optimises the UI. Now let me break it down further for you.

Just as there are well-established design principles for traditional mediums like paper, we now have a design system or language for digital material or screens. And this design language is called Material Design. It takes into account that material has physical surfaces, textures and edges.

So with Material Design, we try and mimic real-world objects for our digital material (screens) and look at things like shadows, 3D effects, lighting, movement and sounds, in addition to traditional design aspects like typography and colour.

Scroll through the Motion page of the Material Design website, to see how it is implemented. It’s brilliant! I love that seemingly simple cues can mean so much.

Deep Work Rules

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According to Computer Science professor and author of the New York Times bestseller, Digital Minimalism, Dr. Calvin Newport, Deep Work is “the activity of focusing without distraction on a cognitively demanding task.” Deep work is what you need to do if you want your brain and mind to work on something really hard.

When in school and college, I spent so much of my time doing deep work. I didn’t have as many distractions and I had to master many new and difficult concepts all the time. So that’s how it was.

Today, my work life is different. I find that I keep jumping from one task to the other. The nature of my work, (which is mostly done online), meetings, meeting requests, online distractions, notifications, gadgets and phone messages are just some of the reasons, I find it hard to do deep work.

So when I read the rules of deep work in this interview in the New York Times, I decided I will write about them and try and live by them. Here are the four rules of deep work, according to Cal Newport.

  1. Work Deeply: This means we prioritize to work deeply. It’s not possible to find large blocks of time without distractions. So what we need to do is simply commit to deep work, everyday, whatever the circumstances. Concentration, will power, habit are all useful tools to encourage us to working deeply.
  2. Embrace Boredom: It’s okay to be bored. We need to experience boredom and not turn to some exciting new activity the moment we feel bored. Let’s NOT pick up a book, check email or glance at our phone as soon as we feel bored. The reason is, when we think deeply about something, we can actually find it quite boring. If we don’t know how to tolerate boredom, we can’t handle the boredom associated with deep work.
  3. Quit Social Media: We need to be selective about the websites and apps we visit. I am not very active on social media, but it still has a grip on me. I don’t tweet or post unnecessarily, But I do read other people’s unnecessary tweets and posts. This rule means I need to significantly cut down my time on Twitter, LinkedIn, Youtube and the like.
  4. Drain the Shallows: This rule means we don’t allow shallow work to dominate our day. Shallow work is work that doesn’t require much concentration. Work like reading and replying to email, scheduling calls and meetings are examples of shallow work.

Now that we know the rules of deep work, let’s make a commitment to ourselves to more deep work.

Small is Beautiful

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Recently I took the opportunity to work on a project for an elearning charity. I designed this short interactive course on Pepper Processing using Evolve Authoring.

Now I must admit that I really like Evolve. It’s easy to use, inexpensive and tailored for HTML5 responsive content. I also like it that the content produced in Evolve has a web scrolling interface.

But I had just got my very own Articulate Storyline 3 license and was excited to use it. Besides, I couldn’t imagine why anyone would be unhappy with Storyline, the King of Authoring tools, if I was paying for it. But when I checked with my coordinator, she surprised me by saying that Storyline was not preferred.

It turns out that the interactive courses produced with Evolve Authoring are extremely compact. In parts of the world, where there is no internet and limited mains electricity, it’s important that lots of courses can be accommodated on a single SD card. While large external hard drives can store lots of content, it would still mean using additional power, which can be relatively very expensive. These are places where people rely entirely on small solar panels to derive power.

It’s here that Evolve Authoring comes to the rescue. Interactive courses designed in Evolve and Adapt are so much smaller in size when compared with those authored in Articulate Storyline and Captivate.

Small is beautiful! This is one more reason to use Evolve Authoring.

Good Things Take Time

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Recently I watched a Google Talk by an eminent Graphic Designer. It was a fascinating talk of how MIT got its logo. What amazed me was the more-than-a-year long journey it took to arrive at the MIT family of logos.

I find so many clients telling me with a straight face that they want their deliverables by “yesterday”! And most of us, designers and developers, actually try to comply. While I understand that “time is money”, I don’t quite understand why so many businesses don’t realize that “all good things take time”.

fruit candies
Photo by Ylanite Koppens on

Jamie Curl, a successful candy maker, explains this so well, when she says “you have to give the candy that’s cooking the time it deserves”, just like “you have to give a project the time it deserves”. When making candy, you cannot refrigerate it to cool it. You HAVE to allow it to cool down naturally.

Curl was invited by Google to share her recipe for success with Google employees. Let’s take a leaf out of Curl’s book and start honoring our work with the time it deserves. While we may still continue to “chase deadlines” and “firefight”, let’s begin to acknowledge that the best work is never done in a hurry.

Good things take time.

Male or Female?

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When it comes to an elearning voice-over, which works better? A male voice or a female voice?

Sometimes our preference for a particular gender for voice is driven by tradition and conditioning. It’s hard to find men being enthusiastic about lotions and lipsticks. Similarly, I’m not sure if a female voice can be too successful selling scotch and razors.

Even for gender-neutral topics, it seems like gender matters. At one of my previous workplaces, the sales team had a male and a female team member. They were both equally competent, but their results were different. Even though the male team member used the exact same pitch on the phone that his female colleague used, he rarely received a call back. The target audience was mostly men and they were easily persuaded by the female voice.

So would it have been the other way round, if the target audience was a bunch of women? And what if the audience was an equal mix of men and women, which voice would work better then? Is there no topic that is truly gender neutral? Are all topics like nouns in French; they all have genders. Is choosing a gender for a voice-over, actually quite straightforward? Or is it a complex affair that needs to take into account many different factors? These are all the questions in my head and I’m not sure if there is one right answer.

But let’s assume all things are equal – ability of the voice artist, voice quality, availability of talent, cost of hiring the talent, which voice would you go with, for your elearning voice-over?

Educating the Parrot


As an e-learning designer, I am fully aware of the power of e-learning. But when people equate a wholesome education with smart classrooms, the latest gadgets and glitzy learning apps, I’m reminded of The Parrot’s Tale by Rabindranath Tagore.

In the story, a bird, which was meant to fly, is “educated” by caging it in a beautiful gold cage and stuffing it with books. The pundits, the goldsmith, the blacksmith, the ministers and several others in the kingdom end up “educating” the poor bird. And the funny thing is, they are handsomely paid for it.  With so much investment and noise over the parrot’s “education”, the King and all his subjects (except a few naysayers) are convinced that the parrot is being well educated. The end is tragic.

It’s amazing that Tagore wrote this story nearly 100 years ago and it is still relevant and relatable. His story highlights, among other things, the undeserved profits that many make in educating the poor bird.  Today, many companies are getting huge commissions from schools and parents for their ill- designed, but well-marketed educational solutions. Simple, yet well-conceived, deep learning solutions, like those from Khan Academy and MIT are great. The interesting thing to note is that most of these highly effective e-learning solutions are free. It’s the gimmicky, snazzy, shrill e-learning that doesn’t always work, which can also be rather expensive. So let’s not be fooled by the investment and hype around e-learning solutions. Let’s critically evaluate how effective the e-learning actually is, before endorsing it.

If you want to read The Parrot’s Tale, you can find a translated version here.

My Return to Blogdom

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As I was making updates to my website, I realized that my blog had been defunct for over 2 years.

But I don’t have the time to write a blog post? In fact, does anyone have the time to read one? Most of us are simply skimming through web content. So I’ve decided to make it easy for my readers and for me, by keeping my blog posts short and sweet. From now on, you’ll find me posting short posts at regular intervals.

An Interview

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In this post, you will be directed to my interview for In the interview, I share my views on freelancing with Sheroes member, Sonia Desphande. Visit the link here.


The Story of the E-Learning Storyboard – Part 2

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In part 1 of this blog post, I gave you a brief history and background of the storyboard. In this part, I’ll talk about the popular storyboard formats and the steps for creating an effective storyboard. I shall end the post with my top tips on storyboarding.

Popular Storyboard Formats

Today, the two most common storyboards formats in the industry are Word and PowerPoint. While there is no right or wrong format, each of them has its pros and cons. Eventually, it is for the ID to weigh both options and decide which format will work best for the specific course.


PowerPoint is better suited for visuals; it isn’t really a good choice if a lot of textual information needs to be represented. A PowerPoint storyboard gives a good visual presentation of each frame. Each slide may come really close to what will finally be developed. However, editing and reviewing the storyboard can be tricky.

Word on the other hand, is so much easier in terms of working with text and comments. Reviewing and copy-editing are relatively pain-free. The downside is that it is hard to get a real feel of the final course in Word. Those relatively new to e-learning may not fully comprehend the final outcome of a storyboard in Word. So even after multiple reviews, a Word storyboard is more likely to be altered at an advanced stage.

How to Storyboard?

Now that you are convinced of the need to storyboard and know how to pick a storyboard template, let me guide you step by step on how to storyboard.

Six Steps for Creating a Storyboard

  1. Identify the learning objectives: The very first thing to do is find out the learning problem and your target audience. Study and ask questions about what exactly is expected from the learning solution. Based on your study, identify the learning objectives. Never lose sight of the objectives.
  2. Organize all your materials: Ask the stakeholders, including the SMEs, for all the raw learning content that they can provide you. Determine how you are going to use the material.
  3. Choose your storyboard template: Based on the kind of project, choose an appropriate storyboard template and customize it for your specific needs.
  4. Choose your instructional design strategy: Decide on the instructional approach you will use. You could use a scenario-based approach, a conversational approach, a game-based approach or even a simple page-turner approach. A favoured option is a combination of many approaches.
  5. Sequence and chunk your content: At this stage, you have to put pen to paper. Sequence your content in the order that is best suited for effective learning. For the learner to absorb information easily, present your content in small chunks. Maintain a natural flow throughout.
  6. Review: Once you have created your storyboard, review it for accuracy of facts, language and grammar, instructional design strategy and 508 compliance. As in any process, the importance of a review cannot be emphasized enough.

Guidelines for Outstanding Storyboards

To create powerful e-learning, you must begin with an outstanding storyboard. Here are my seven key guidelines for storyboarding awesomeness.trophy-1008961_1920

  1. Push the envelope. Use innovative strategies and your imagination to make your storyboard stand out. Ask a question, use a quotation, add a conversation, or bring in an analogy. For example, instead of a boring five-point bullet list, show the points on the image of a hand; one point for each finger.
  2. Balance all the elements of a storyboard, specifically the visual and audio elements. Make sure your narration is not a word-to-word replica of the onscreen text (OST).
    • Crisp, short OST is preferred when there is a lengthy audio playing simultaneously. The learner should be able to scan the text quickly when the primary medium is audio.
    • When the text is long, the audio can be short. For example, when an entire case study or problem is displayed on screen, there needs to be very little or no accompanying audio. The learner will be able to concentrate on reading the case study or problem without being distracted by an accompanying audio.
  3. A picture is worth a thousand words. Humans are visually wired and learn a great deal more and faster when the learning content is visual. Your visuals should never be an afterthought. Choose meaningful graphics and videos with high recall value.
  4. Include purposeful interactivity on every possible screen. An interactivity just for the sake of interactivity is a strict no-no. All interactivities are different forms of the following basic ones:
    • Click interactions: click and reveal, click and pop up and click carousel
    • Drag and drop
    • Rollovers/mouse hovers
    • Text entry
  5. Work on an engaging tone throughout the storyboard. The tone can be developed, in particular, in the introduction, slide transitions, examples and conclusion. For a conversational tone, make use of contractions in the narration. Change the frame style every few slides, while keeping the overall theme intact. Ensure your slide transitions are smooth.
  6. Beware of scope creep. It is normal for a storyboard to go through several rounds of revisions before it is signed off. However, once it is signed off and production starts, changes to the storyboard can be a costly affair. Make sure that all the stakeholders are aware of this.
  7. If you are developing device independent e-learning, you must be clear about what is allowed and what is not, even before you begin storyboarding.

With these tips, you can create some excellent storyboards. If you have more good ones, please share them in the comments section.

The Story of the E-Learning Storyboard – Part 1


Ajanta Cave painting
Ajanta Cave Painting: An Example of Visual Storytelling

The modern storyboard, however, is credited to Walt Disney. He came up with the idea for his animation films in the 1930s. His storyboard was a series of detailed sketches that depicted the entire sequence of frames in his film. While the e-learning industry has made a few changes to Walt Disney’s storyboard, the concept remains the same.

Storyboarding: Do You Really Need It?

So, what if you didn’t storyboard? What would happen if you dived straight into development without a storyboard? After all, storyboarding comes at a price. A storyboard is finalised after countless hours of agonizing over seemingly insignificant details. When you do away with storyboards, you can save so much time.

Or can you? To answer this, just imagine building a house without a floor plan. Do I hear you say, “that’s crazy”? Well, it’s the same with e-learning. If you developed a course without your blueprint–the storyboard–you can run into serious problems later on. Without the storyboarding phase, the risk of complete failure of your e-learning project is very real.

The Anatomy of a Typical Storyboard

Okay, so now that you are absolutely convinced that you need a storyboard, let us understand a typical storyboard. A storyboard may have the following key elements:

  • Title Section: This section presents basic details about the project and the slide. The project details could include the course name, module name and lesson name. Apart from the project details, the frame/screen title and frame/screen number must also be specified here. Additional details like approximate seat time of the screen, type of frame and objective of the screen may also be given.
  • Visual Section: This section shows us how the screen will look. Graphics, video and onscreen text are placed here. If there is a lot of onscreen text, it may be a good idea to have it in a separate sub-section. This will make it easier when you want to edit and proofread the onscreen text.
  • Audio Section: The voice-over text, background music and the audio effects are given in this section. You could also choose to provide a pronunciation key for hard-to-pronounce words or acronyms, if it is required.
  • Instructions Section: Instructions on how the visual, textual and audio elements are to be treated are mentioned in this section. The graphics or media team will be focusing on this section.
  • Interactivity and Navigation Section: As the name suggests, all the interaction that happens on the screen is given here. The branching and navigation that take place in the screen are listed in this section. The programming or developer team will focus on this section.

Sections of a Storyboard

In the next part of this post, I will explain how to create a storyboard.